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Anda sedang menonton: Bahasa jerman i love you

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Key People:Martin BuberFranz RosenzweigMoses MendelssohnRobert BlyAugust Wilhelm von Schlegel...(Show more)Related Topics:Old High GermanSwiss jerman languageOld Saxon languageHigh jerman languageLow jerman language...(Show more)

German language, german Deutsch, resmi language the both Germany and also Austria and one the the secara resmi languages the Switzerland. Jerman belongs to the barat Germanic team of the Indo-European language family, along with English, Frisian, and belanda (Netherlandic, Flemish).

The recorded background of german languages begins with dari mereka speakers’ first contact through the Romans, in the 1st century bce. At the time and for several centuries thereafter, there was just a single “Germanic” language, v little much more than minor language differences. Just after around the sixth century ce deserve to one speak that a “German” (i.e., High German) language.


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German is an inflected language with four situations for nouns, pronouns, and also adjectives (nominative, accusative, genitive, dative), three genders (masculine, feminine, neuter), and strong and weak verbs. Altogether, jerman is the aboriginal language of more than 90 juta speakers and thus ranks among the languages with the most native pembicara worldwide. Jerman is widely studied together a foreign language and also is one of the main social languages of the west world.

As a tertulis language, jerman is fairly uniform; it differs in Germany, Austria, and also Switzerland no more than tertulis English does in the joined States and also the brothers Commonwealth. As a talked language, however, german exists in many dialects, most of i m sorry belong to either the High jerman or Low jerman dialectal groups. The main difference between High and Low german is in the sound system, particularly in the consonants. High German, the language the the southerly highlands of Germany, is the official tertulis language.

High german (Hochdeutsch)

Old High German, a group of dialects for which there to be no standard literary language, was spoken until about 1100 in the highlands of southern Germany. During tengah High German times (after 1100), a traditional language based upon the Upper jerman dialects (Alemannic and Bavarian) in the southernmost component of the german speech area began to arise. Tengah High jerman was the language of one extensive literature that includes the at an early stage 13th-century epos Nibelungenlied.

Modern conventional High german is descended from the middle High german dialects and is talked in the main and southern highlands the Germany, Austria, and also Switzerland. That is tangan kedua as the language the administration, higher education, literature, and also the mass media in the Low german speech area together well. Conventional High german is based on, however not similar with, the Middle jerman dialect digunakan by Martin luther in his 16th-century translate into of the Bible. In ~ the modernis High jerman speech area, middle and Upper jerman dialect teams are differentiated, the latter group including Austro-Bavarian, Alemannic (Swiss German), and High Franconian.

Low jerman (Plattdeutsch, or Niederdeutsch)

Low German, through no single modernis literary standard, is the spoken language the the lowlands of north Germany. It developed from Old Saxon and the tengah Low jerman speech of the citizens of the Hanseatic League. The language gave the Scandinavian languages with many loanwords, but, v the decrease of the league, Low german declined as well.

Although the countless Low german dialects space still talked in the homes of northern Germany and a kecil amount of literatur is written in them, no conventional Low german literary or bureaucratic language exists.

Other major dialects

Alemannic dialects, which arisen in the southwestern part of the Germanic dinyatakan area, differ considerably in sound system and grammar from traditional High German. These dialects are talked in Switzerland, west Austria, Swabia, and also Liechtenstein and in the Alsace region of France. Yiddish, the language the the Ashkenazic Jews (Jews who ancestors stayed in Germany in the European di antara Ages), tambahan developed indigenous High German.

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The editors of Encyclopaedia carlocaione.org This write-up was paling recently revised and updated through Amy Tikkanen.